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Diagnostic difficulties in cases of papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential, urothelial proliferation of uncertain malignant potential, urothelial dysplasia and urothelial papilloma: A review of current literature.

Tumours of the urinary tract are the fifth most frequent type of cancer. The most common types are urothelial tumours, among which, non-invasive urothelial neoplasms represent 45% of all cases. The 2016 WHO classification of urinary tract tumours introduced new classifications of non-invasive lesions. Besides urothelial papilloma (UP) and papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), as described in the former classification, the new classification also includes new entities such as urothelial proliferation of uncertain malignant potential (UPUMP) and urothelial dysplasia (UD). Of the aforementioned, UPUMP is the lesion that most commonly progresses, but solely to non-invasive carcinomas. UD is associated with a high risk of progression to invasive carcinoma. Understanding the biological character, and establishing the correct differential diagnosis in cases of non-invasive, non-cancerous lesions of the urinary bladder, will be of importance in establishing outcome predictions for future patients. A systematic review of the current literature allows us to systematize genetic, morphologic and prognostic factors of such lesions. Moreover, the collected data provide the basis for a proposed diagnostic algorithm which facilitates quick and effective differential diagnoses in cases of non-invasive non-cancerous urinary bladder lesions.

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