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Synchronous mantle cell lymphoma and prostate adenocarcinoma-is it just a coincidence?

INTRODUCTION: Synchronous occurrence of lymphomas and other cancers, mostly carcinomas are well established. The most of cases describe chronic lymphocytic leukemia as the leading lymphoproliferative disease with the tendency towards secondary malignancies development. Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has been described in only 2 cases to co-occur with prostate adenocarcinoma (PAC). There are scarce data about the connection between MCL and urology cancers. We presented the first case of synchronous occurrence of MCL and PAC in the same patient in Serbia.

CASE REPORT: A 64-year-old male initially presented with fatigue, splenomegaly, and bicytopenia. The bone marrow biopsy specimen revealed extensive infiltration with MCL. During lymphoma staging procedure prostate enlargement (57 mm) was accidentally found by multislice- computed tomography (MSCT). The serum prostate specific antigen (PSA) was elevated (52 ng/mL; normal values ≤ 4 ng/mL). Transrectal ultrasound biopsy revealed PAC. High Gleason score determined high-risk locally advanced PAC. The patient underwent treatment with chemotherapy and hormone therapy due to the existence of double malignancies. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone (CHOP) was applied for MCL, and luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone (LHRH) agonist, triptorelin, for PAC. Partial response was obtained for MCL, and stable disease for PAC. In a 1.5-year observation period the patient was still disease progression free for both of malignancies.

CONCLUSION: This case points aut that elderly males are in need for careful observation during the staging procedure for lymphoma. The literature data suggest that MCL patients are in increased risk for urologic malignancies development. However, the etiologic connection between these two entities, except male gender and older age, remains unclear.

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