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Trends and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic versus open pyloromyotomy.

BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) is one of the most common pediatric illnesses necessitating surgical intervention. Controversy remains over the optimal surgical approach between laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP) and open pyloromyotomy (OP). LP has gained acceptance for management of HPS in an era of expanding minimal access surgical approaches to pediatric conditions. Several studies suggest advantages of LP over OP; however, selection bias and small sample sizes remain a concern. This study compares the outcomes of LP versus OP using propensity score methods.

METHODS: The 2013-2015 ACS NSQIP Pediatric PUF was queried for all infants undergoing pyloromyotomy. The trend in the proportion of infants undergoing LP was described and perioperative outcomes between the OP and LP cohorts were compared using propensity score weighted regression models.

RESULTS: 4847 infants were identified to have undergone surgical pyloromyotomy. The proportion of LP performed increased significantly from 59% in 2013 to 65.5% in 2015 (p < 0.001). LP was associated with lower overall complications (1.4% vs 2.9%) (ORadj  0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80), surgical site-related complications (1.1% vs 2.1%) (ORadj  0.52, 95% CI 0.32-0.84), and post-operative length of stay (1.5 days vs 1.9 days) (ORadj  0.89, 95% CI 0.81-0.98) without significant differences in related re-operation (0.9% vs 0.9%) (ORadj  1.01, 95% CI 0.52-1.93) or readmissions (1.4% vs 2.1%) (ORadj  0.73, 95% CI 0.46-1.17).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that LP is increasingly utilized for management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and is associated with shorter length of stay, and lower odds of surgical site-specific and overall complications without differences in related re-operations. This study supports LP as a safe and effective method for management of HPS.

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