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Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome: A Rare Childhood Case with Unconsciousness.

BACKGROUND: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition characterized by seizures, altered consciousness, visual disturbances, and headache. Characteristic findings on neuroimaging include cerebral edema, typically involving the parieto-occipital white matter. PRES has been associated with hypertension, autoimmune disease, and Henoch-Schölein purpura (HSP), but few cases have been reported, and fewer cases of PRES have been reported in children.

CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 4-year-old girl who presented with blindness and semi-consciousness. The patient had no significant medical history and no abnormalities on physical examination or laboratory testing, although she had slightly elevated blood pressure. After hospitalization, the patient showed some characteristic signs of HSP and cranial magnetic resonance imaging revealed PRES as the cause of semi-consciousness. In our discussion, we examine the clinical features of PRES and remarkable points for the clinical diagnosis and management of this rare but important disease. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Although reports of PRES in children are rare, PRES should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children presenting with disturbance of consciousness. Emergency physicians should consult with pediatric physicians to confirm diagnoses of PRES and determine an appropriate treatment plan, given its variable etiology. Measurements of blood pressure, which are often missing in pediatric cases, can help physicians to arrive at a correct diagnosis.

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