How often is sinus surgery performed for chronic rhinosinusitis with versus without nasal polyps?

Elisabeth H Ference, Jeffrey D Suh, Bruce K Tan, Stephanie Shintani Smith
American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy 2018 January 1, 32 (1): 34-39

BACKGROUND: There currently are no data on the relative frequency of endoscopic sinus surgeries (ESS) performed for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP) versus chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyposis (CRSsNP) in the United States.

OBJECTIVES: To compare the rate of surgical interventions for CRSwNP and CRSsNP.

METHODS: Cases identified by CPT codes were extracted from the 2009-2011 State Ambulatory Surgery Databases for California, Florida, Maryland, and New York. Patient demographics, extent of surgery, mean charges, and operating room (OR) time were compared.

RESULTS: A total of 97,228 ESS cases were performed in the four states; 29.3% of surgeries were for patients with CRSwNP, 66.0% of patients with CRSsNP, and 4.8% for other indications. The proportion of ESS for CRSwNP varied across states, with California having the highest percentage (34.6%) and Maryland having the lowest (26.4%) (p < 0.0001). Patients with Medicaid (33.8%) and Medicare (32.2%) had higher rates of surgery for CRSwNP compared with patients with private insurance (29.9%) (p < 0.001). Surgeons who performed a higher volume of sinus surgery compared to lower volume surgeons performed a lower percentage of surgery for CRSwNP (24.4 versus 33.5%; p < 0.001). ESS cases for CRSwNP were more extensive (relative risk of four sinus surgeries of 1.88; p < 0.0001), used image guidance more frequently (relative risk, 1.39; p < 0.0001), and were less likely to include a balloon procedure (relative risk, 0.69; p < 0.0001). Patients with CRSwNP had longer OR times (ESS that involved all four sinuses took 14 minutes longer) (p < 0.0001), but no difference in charges compared with patients with CRSsNP who underwent a similar extent of surgery.

CONCLUSION: Almost 30% of ESS were performed for CRSwNP, and these cases were, on average, more extensive, used more OR time, and more often used image guidance than surgeries for CRSsNP. The rate of surgery performed for CRSwNP varied based on geography, payer, and surgical volume, which indicted that patient selection impacted surgical management.

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