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Endovascular Management of Multiple Dysplastic Aneurysms in a Young Man with an Unknown Underlying Cause: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Tyler Scullen, Mansour Mathkour, Joseph Lockwood, Leah Ott, Ricky Medel, Aaron S Dumont, Peter S Amenta
World Neurosurgery 2018, 111: 349-357
29289804

BACKGROUND: Intracranial aneurysms are the leading cause of nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and are most commonly associated with the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and anterior communicating artery complex. We describe the presentation and management of a 27-year-old man with concurrent bilateral A1-2 junction aneurysms and fusiform intraorbital ophthalmic artery (OA) aneurysms.

CASE DESCRIPTION: A 27-year-old man with no past medical history presented with 3 months of headaches. Imaging showed a large dysplastic left A1-2 junction aneurysm and a smaller saccular right A1-2 junction aneurysm, with potentially adherent domes. Two fusiform aneurysms of the intraorbital segment of the left OA were also identified. The patient underwent coil-assisted pipeline embolization of the left A1-A2 aneurysm, with complete obliteration and reconstitution of the normal parent vessel. The patient underwent coil embolization of the right A1-2 aneurysm 3 weeks later, which was found to have grown significantly at the time of treatment. Three-month follow-up showed spontaneous resolution of the OA aneurysms, persistent obliteration of the left aneurysm, and significant recurrence of the right aneurysm, which was treated with stent-assisted coil embolization. A second recurrence 3 months later was successfully treated with repeat coiling. At the time of this treatment, the patient was also found to have 2 de novo distal middle cerebral artery and ACA dysplastic aneurysms, which were not treated. Follow-up angiography 6 weeks later showed stable complete obliteration of the right A1-2 aneurysm and interval complete resolution of the dysplastic middle cerebral artery aneurysm. The distal ACA aneurysm was observed to have minimally increased in size; however, the parent vessel showed signs of interval partial thrombosis with contrast stasis within the aneurysm. This final aneurysm is being followed with serial imaging. The patient remains neurologically intact with complete resolution of his headaches.

CONCLUSIONS: We report the case of a young man with no past medical history who presented with multiple dysplastic aneurysms. Successful staged endovascular intervention resulted in obliteration of aneurysms with spontaneous obliteration of the intraorbital OA aneurysms observed at 3 months. We present this case to review the multiple challenges of managing complex ACA aneurysms and to highlight the usefulness of endovascular intervention in their treatment.

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