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Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) in Children and Adolescents: Clinical Features and Response to Therapy in 110 Pediatric Patients.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to characterize the clinical features and outcomes of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the pediatric population.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review.

SETTING: Tertiary care center.

PATIENTS: One hundred ten patients, aged 5 to 19 years old, diagnosed with BPPV.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, comorbidities, canal involvement, response to treatment, and incidence of recurrence.

RESULTS: BPPV was diagnosed in 19.8% of patients seen for dizziness during the study period. Patient age ranged 5 to 19 years old (mean =13.4 ± 3.4 yr). Female:male ratio was 3:2. The most prevalent comorbidities were concussion (n = 42, 38.2%) and migraine disorders (n = 33, 30.0%). Average time to diagnosis from symptom onset was 178.2 ± 190.8 days. The posterior canal was most frequently affected (n = 80, 72.7%), followed by the lateral canal (n = 37, 33.6%) and superior canal (n = 21, 19.1%), and 36.4% (n = 40) of patients had multiple canals affected. Treatment requiring more than or equal to five maneuvers to achieve resolution was observed in 11.8% of cases (n = 13). Recurrence was observed in 18.2% of cases. A logistic regression analysis demonstrated that patients with vestibular migraine or benign paroxysmal vertigo of childhood had five times higher odds of recurrence of BPPV, p = 0.003, 95% [1.735, 15.342], than those who did not have either.

CONCLUSIONS: BPPV is a relatively common cause of dizziness in the pediatric population. Children and adolescents with BPPV can be successfully treated with repositioning maneuvers but may be at risk for treatment resistance and recurrence. Increased awareness of BPPV in pediatric patients may reduce delays in identification and treatment.

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