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Biomechanical Comparison of Fixation With a Single Screw Versus Two Kirschner Wires in Distal Chevron Osteotomies of the First Metatarsal: A Cadaver Study.

Distal chevron osteotomy is a common procedure for surgical correction of hallux valgus. Osteosynthesis with 1 screw or 2 Kirschner wires has been commonly used. We compared the stability of the 2 techniques in distal chevron osteotomy. Sixteen first metatarsals from fresh-frozen human cadaver feet (9 different cadaveric specimens) were used. A standardized distal chevron osteotomy was performed. One first metatarsal from each pair was assigned to group 1 (3.5-mm cortical screw; n = 8) and one to group 2 (two 1.6-mm Kirschner wires; n = 8). Using a materials testing machine, the head of the first metatarsals was loaded in 2 different configurations (cantilever and physiologic) in succession. In the cantilever configuration, the relative stiffness of the osteosynthesis compared with intact bone was 59% ± 27% in group 1 and 68% ± 18% in group 2 (p = .50). In the physiologic configuration, it was 38% ± 25% in group 1 and 35% ± 7% in group 2 (p = .75). The failure strength in the cantilever configuration was 187 ± 105 N in group 1 and 259 ± 71 N in group 2 (p = .21). No statistically significant differences were found in stability between the 2 techniques. The use of 1 screw or 2 Kirschner wires had no significant differences in their biomechanical loading capacity for osteosynthesis in distal chevron osteotomies for treatment of hallux valgus.

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