Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor decreases the risk of atrial fibrillation in patients with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan

Chia-Yu Chang, Yung-Hsin Yeh, Yi-Hsin Chan, Jia-Rou Liu, Shang-Hung Chang, Hsin-Fu Lee, Lung-Sheng Wu, Kun-Chi Yen, Chi-Tai Kuo, Lai-Chu See
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2017 December 19, 16 (1): 159

BACKGROUND: Whether dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4i) is associated with a lower risk of new-onset atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the risk of AF associated with use of DPP4i among a longitudinal cohort of patients with diabetes.

METHODS: Over a 3-year period, 480,000 patients with diabetes were analyzed utilizing Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database and 90,880 patients taking metformin as first-line therapy were enrolled. Patients were further divided into two groups: (1) DPP4i users: those taking DPP4i and (2) non-DPP4i users: those prescribed other hypoglycemic agents (HAs) as second-line drug. Study end point was defined by diagnosis of AF, addition of any third-line HA, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2013), whichever came first.

RESULTS: A total of 16,017 DPP4i users and 74,863 non-DPP4i users were eligible for the study. For the DPP4i group, most patients were prescribed sitagliptin (n = 12,180; 76%). Among the non-DPP4i group, most patients took sulfonylurea (n = 60,606; 81%) as their second-line medication. DPP4i users were associated with a lower risk of new-onset AF compared with non-DPP4i users after propensity-score weighting (hazard ratio 0.65; P < 0.0001). Subgroup analysis showed that DPP4i user were associated with a lower risk of new-onset AF compared with non-DPP4i users in most subgroups. Multivariate analysis indicated that use of DPP4i was associated with lower risk of new-onset AF and age > 65 years, presence of hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were independent risk factors for new-onset AF.

CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with diabetes prescribed with metformin, the patients with DPP4i as second HA were associated with a lower risk of AF compared with the patients with other drugs as second HAs in real-world practice.

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