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JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Immunological challenges associated with artificial skin grafts: available solutions and stem cells in future design of synthetic skin

Saurabh Dixit, Dieudonné R Baganizi, Rajnish Sahu, Ejowke Dosunmu, Atul Chaudhari, Komal Vig, Shreekumar R Pillai, Shree R Singh, Vida A Dennis
Journal of Biological Engineering 2017, 11: 49
29255480
The repair or replacement of damaged skins is still an important, challenging public health problem. Immune acceptance and long-term survival of skin grafts represent the major problem to overcome in grafting given that in most situations autografts cannot be used. The emergence of artificial skin substitutes provides alternative treatment with the capacity to reduce the dependency on the increasing demand of cadaver skin grafts. Over the years, considerable research efforts have focused on strategies for skin repair or permanent skin graft transplantations. Available skin substitutes include pre- or post-transplantation treatments of donor cells, stem cell-based therapies, and skin equivalents composed of bio-engineered acellular or cellular skin substitutes. However, skin substitutes are still prone to immunological rejection, and as such, there is currently no skin substitute available to overcome this phenomenon. This review focuses on the mechanisms of skin rejection and tolerance induction and outlines in detail current available strategies and alternatives that may allow achieving full-thickness skin replacement and repair.

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