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Fever with lymphadenopathy - Kikuchi Fujimoto disease, a great masquerader: a case report.

BACKGROUND: Kikuchi Fujimoto disease is an uncommon benign condition of necrotizing histiocytic lymphadenitis commonly seen in East Asian and Japanese populations. It commonly presents with fever, cervical lymphadenopathy, and elevated inflammatory markers. Diagnosis of Kikuchi Fujimoto disease is based on histopathological studies of the involved lymph nodes. The presentation of Kikuchi Fujimoto disease can mimic many sinister conditions including lymphoma. Treatment is mainly supportive provided that accurate diagnosis is made and sinister conditions like lymphoma ruled out.

CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of an 18-year-old Sri Lankan Moor woman who presented with fever and cervical lymphadenopathy for 1 month. She had elevated inflammatory markers with high lactate dehydrogenase and ferritin levels. She had an extensive work-up including an excision biopsy of an involved lymph node and bone marrow biopsy. Finally, a diagnosis of Kikuchi Fujimoto disease was based on histopathology of the lymph node and negative bone marrow biopsy.

CONCLUSIONS: Although Kikuchi Fujimoto disease is a self-limiting condition, it is a great masquerader which mimics the clinical features of many sinister conditions including tuberculosis, lymphoma, and adult-onset Still's disease. Early recognition of the disease is of crucial importance in minimizing potentially harmful and unnecessary evaluations and treatments.

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