The protective effect of dexmedetomidine on LPS-induced acute lung injury through the HMGB1-mediated TLR4/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways

Lu Meng, Longyun Li, Shan Lu, Kai Li, Zhenbo Su, Yunyun Wang, Xiaodi Fan, Xuyang Li, Guoqing Zhao
Molecular Immunology 2018, 94: 7-17
The aim of present study was to evaluate the protective effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) and investigate its possible mechanisms mediated by HMGB1. In vivo, pulmonary pathology observation and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were also examined to evaluate the protective effect of DEX in the lungs. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), serum and lung tissues LPS-induced rats were detected. The oxidative indices including superoxide dismutase (SOD), Malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum were also determined. Additionally, nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, MDA, SOD and GSH-Px in the supernatants of LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells were measured. Furthermore, we detected the protein expression of high mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiating factor 88 (MyD88), inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBα), p-IκBα, nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), p-NF-κB, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K), p-PI3K, protein kinase B (Akt), p-Akt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and p-mTOR in LPS-induced ALI rats and LPS-induced BEAS-2B cells. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses of HMGB1 in lung tissues or BEAS-2B cells were also conducted to evaluate the mechanisms of DEX. DEX effectively attenuated pulmonary pathology, and ameliorated the levels of MPO, SOD, MDA, GSH-Px, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and NO in LPS-stimulated rats and BEAS-2B cells. Additionally, treatment with DEX inhibited the expression of HMGB1, TLR4, MyD88, p-IκB, p-NF-κB, p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR in vivo and in vitro. Immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses also showed that DEX suppressed HMGB1 levels in lung sections and BEAS-2B cells. Treatment with glycyrrhizin, an inhibitor of HMGB1, confirmed that HMGB1 was involved in the mechanism of DEX on LPS-induced ALI. The transfection of HGMB1 siRNA also confirmed these findings in vitro. In conclusion, the present study showed that DEX exerted a protective effect on LPS-induced ALI rats likely through the HMGB1-mediated TLR4/NF-κB and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways.

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