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Association of prognostic features and treatment on survival time of dogs with systemic mastocytosis: A retrospective analysis of 40 dogs

S J Moirano, S F Lima, K R Hume, E M Brodsky
Veterinary and Comparative Oncology 2018, 16 (1): E194-E201
29239110
Systemic mastocytosis is a rare phenomenon, with limited information regarding prognostic features and effective treatment of canine patients with this disease. The objective of this study is to determine the impact of certain features and treatments on dogs with systemic mastocytosis. The medical records of 40 dogs from 4 northeastern US veterinary hospitals, with evidence of systemic mast cell disease, were evaluated retrospectively. Variables analysed with relation to overall survival and prognostic significance included treatment protocol used, substage, presence of a cutaneous or visceral tumour, presence of multiple cutaneous Mast cell tumours, grade of the primary tumour and metastatic site(s). Dogs with metastatic disease confined to distant lymph nodes lived longer than those with circulating mast cells in the blood (P = .001), and those with metastatic disease evident in more than 2 sites had a worse prognosis than those with disease in a single location (P = .005). Additionally, administration of chemotherapeutic agents led to increased survival over prednisone therapy alone (P = .008), with the combination of lomustine, vinblastine and prednisone prolonging survival over the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, toceranib phosphate (P = .002). Presence of mast cells in the blood and/or evidence of disease in more than 2 sites indicate widespread dissemination suggesting their use as negative prognostic features. Furthermore, a chemotherapy protocol including combination lomustine and vinblastine therapy may be more effective than toceranib phosphate for the treatment of dogs with disseminated mast cell disease. Overall, patients with systemic mastocytosis have a grave prognosis and more effective treatment options are needed.

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