Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering in Patients With and Patients Without Type 2 Diabetes: A Pooled Analysis From Two Randomized Trials

Tom F Brouwer, Jim T Vehmeijer, Deborah N Kalkman, Wouter R Berger, Bert-Jan H van den Born, Ron J Peters, Reinoud E Knops
Diabetes Care 2018, 41 (6): 1142-1148

OBJECTIVE: The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Blood Pressure (ACCORD-BP) study did not find a significant beneficial effect of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering on cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), while the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) did find a significant beneficial effect in patients without T2DM. The objective of this analysis was to assess the effect of both T2DM and baseline cardiovascular disease risk on the treatment effect of intensive blood pressure lowering.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The individual patient data from the ACCORD-BP and SPRINT studies were pooled and follow-up durations harmonized. Both studies randomized hypertensive patients to an SBP target of <120 mmHg or a target of <140 mmHg. The composite primary end point consisted of unstable angina, myocardial infarction, acute heart failure, stroke, and cardiovascular death. The interaction between intensive blood pressure lowering and both T2DM and 10-year cardiovascular risk was assessed using Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 14,094 patients with mean age 66 ± 8.9 years and mean baseline SBP 139.5 ± 15.6 mmHg; 33.6% had T2DM. The hazard ratio for the primary composite end point was 0.82 (95% CI 0.73-0.93), P = 0.0017. The interaction between intensive blood pressure lowering and T2DM was nonsignificant ( P = 0.13). The 10-year cardiovascular risk was higher in primary prevention patients with T2DM, but risk did not interact with the treatment effect ( P = 0.84).

CONCLUSIONS: Intensive blood pressure lowering may have a similar favorable effect and appears to decrease cardiovascular events in both patients with and patients without T2DM.

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