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Oral pharmacological treatment for patent ductus arteriosus in premature neonates with hemodynamic repercussions.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of oral indomethacin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol in oral dosage form on patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature neonates with significant clinical and hemodynamic repercussions (CHRs) and to determine the effect of these respective treatments on renal function.

METHODS: A retrospective study of cases of PDA in premature neonates in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit was conducted. The treatments consisted of indomethacin [0.2 mg/(kg·d), 3-day cycle], ibuprofen [10 mg/(kg·d) followed by 5 mg/(kg·d), 3-day cycle], and paracetamol (15 mg/kg every 6 h, 5-day cycle). The drugs were administered as an oral solution. The following variables were considered: gestational age, newborn weight at birth, Apgar score, diuresis, serum creatinine and urea levels, and serum electrolyte levels (sodium and potassium).

RESULTS: Treatment with indomethacin presented efficacy of 87.5% in closure of the ductus with a mean outcome period of 3.5 d. In premature neonates with CHRs and contraindications for indomethacin, the initial treatment with either ibuprofen or paracetamol failed to close the ductus. However, when this treatment was followed by indomethacin, closure occurred in 66.7% of the neonates, with an outcome period of 9.66 d. The initial treatment with one cycle of ibuprofen followed by one or two cycles of paracetamol failed to close the ductus.

CONCLUSIONS: Oral indomethacin was effective for closure of the PDA in premature neonates with severe CHRs. Oral paracetamol or ibuprofen for PDA closure in premature neonates with severe CHRs and contraindications for indomethacin was ineffective. However, results in clinical improvements of neonates allowed the subsequent use of indomethacin and successful closure of the ductus. A significant reduction of diuresis occurred in neonates who were treated with indomethacin, either as a first-line treatment or after the failure of ibuprofen or paracetamol.

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