Antithrombotic treatment in peripheral artery disease

Dan-Mircea Olinic, Dan Alexandru Tataru, Calin Homorodean, Mihail Spinu, Maria Olinic
VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten 2018, 47 (2): 99-108
This review treats antithrombotic use for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In asymptomatic patients, there are no scientific data to support single antiplatelet therapy (SAPT) for primary prophylaxis. In symptomatic PAD, SAPT with aspirin or clopidogrel is indicated. The efficacy of aspirin is controversial. Clopidogrel may be preferred over aspirin. Ticagrelor is not superior to clopidogrel in reducing major adverse cardiovascular events and major adverse limb events, but lowers the risk of ischaemic stroke. In symptomatic PAD, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with clopidogrel and aspirin does not provide benefit over SAPT with aspirin alone and is associated with increased risk of major bleeding. DAPT with ticagrelor 60 mg b. i. d. and aspirin provides a significant major adverse cardiovascular events reduction in symptomatic PAD patients and may be considered in PAD patients with prior myocardial infarction. The use of a new thrombin receptor antagonist, vorapaxar, on top of SAPT or DAPT with aspirin and/or clopidogrel, reduces the risk of acute limb ischaemia and peripheral artery revascularization in patients with symptomatic PAD, at the cost of an increased risk for bleeding. Rivaroxaban (2.5 mg b. i. d.) plus aspirin (100 mg daily) is the first antithrombotic association that proved significant benefit for PAD patients, in terms of strong endpoints - total mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, this association shows the strongest evidence for secondary prevention of symptomatic PAD patients. In PAD patients undergoing percutaneous peripheral interventions, at least four weeks of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel is recommended after infrainguinal stent implantation. Stenting below-the-knee arteries is often followed by a longer period of DAPT, but no specific evidence is available. Anticoagulation is mandatory to prevent arterial occlusion during radial or brachial invasive procedures. The strategy includes use of unfractioned heparin, bivalirudin or enoxaparin. Vitamin K antagonists may be considered after autologous vein infrainguinal bypass.

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What should you recommend in symptomatic PAD with Atrial Fibrillation and coronary heart disease (after CABG)? Thank you.


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