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Pediatric acute mastoiditis in the era of pneumococcal vaccination.

Laryngoscope 2018 June
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to describe trends in the annual prevalence of hospitalization for pediatric acute mastoiditis since introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine in 2000 and the 13-valent vaccine in 2010.

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional retrospective data analysis.

METHODS: The Kids' Inpatient Database from years 2000 to 2012 was analyzed. To determine the annual prevalence of hospitalization for acute mastoiditis, nationally weighted frequencies of hospitalization for children <21 years with acute mastoiditis diagnoses were collected. Trend analysis of hospitalization rates from 2000 to -2012 was performed.

RESULTS: From 2000 to 2012, there was no significant trend in hospitalization rates for acute mastoiditis overall (1.38 and 1.43 per 100,000 persons in 2000 and 2012, respectively; P = .86) or by age group. When comparing hospitalization rates at time points 2000 and 2012, children <1 year (4.65 and 3.27 per 100,000 persons, P = .0023) and 1 to 2 years of age (3.95 and 3.18 per 100,000 persons, respectively; P = .0107) demonstrated declines in hospitalization over time. Between 2009 and 2012, hospitalization rates also significantly declined for children aged <1 year (4.50 to 3.27 per 100,000 persons, P = .0056) and 1 to 2 years (4.30 to 3.18 per 100,000 persons, P = .0002) but increased for children 5 to 9 years (1.10 to 1.81 per 100,000 persons, P < .0001) and 10 to 20 years of age (0.41 to 0.72 per 100,000 persons, P < .0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite introduction of two pneumococcal vaccines, rates of hospitalization for pediatric acute mastoiditis did not decline between 2000 and 2012. Between 2009 and 2012, however, children 0 to 2 years of age showed declining hospitalization rates, possibly reflecting the protective benefit of the 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. Laryngoscope, 128:1480-1485, 2018.

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