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Sclerotherapy for the management of rectal prolapse in children.

PURPOSE: Rectal prolapse is a commonly occurring and usually self-limited process in children. Surgical management is indicated for failures of conservative management. However, the optimal approach is unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy of sclerotherapy for the management of rectal prolapse.

METHODS: This was a retrospective review of children <18years with rectal prolapse who underwent sclerotherapy, predominantly with peanut oil (91%), between 1998 and 2015. Patients with imperforate anus or cloaca abnormalities, Hirschprung disease, or prior pull-through procedures were excluded.

RESULTS: Fifty-seven patients were included with a median age of 4.9years (interquartile range (IQR) 3.2-9.2) and median follow-up of 52months (IQR 8-91). Twenty patients (n=20/57; 35%) recurred at a median of 1.6months (IQR 0.8-3.6). Only 3 patients experienced recurrence after 4months. Nine of the patients who recurred (n=9/20; 45%) were re-treated with sclerotherapy. This was successful in 5 patients (n=5/9; 56%). Two patients (n=2/20; 10%) experienced a mucosal recurrence which resolved with conservative management. Forty-four patients were thus cured with sclerotherapy alone (n=44/57; 77%). No patients undergoing sclerotherapy had an adverse event. Thirteen patients (n=13/20; 65%) underwent rectopexy after failing at least one treatment of sclerotherapy. Three of these patients (n=3/13; 23%) recurred following rectopexy and required an additional operation.

CONCLUSIONS: Injection sclerotherapy for children with rectal prolapse resulted in a durable cure of prolapse in most children. Patients who recur following sclerotherapy tend to recur within 4months. Another attempt at sclerotherapy following recurrence is reasonable and was successful half of the time. Sclerotherapy should be the preferred initial treatment for rectal prolapse in children and for the initial treatment of recurrence.


TYPE OF STUDY: Treatment Study.

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