JOURNAL ARTICLE

Acute convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage and cortical superficial siderosis in probable cerebral amyloid angiopathy without lobar haemorrhage

Andreas Charidimou, Grégoire Boulouis, Panagiotis Fotiadis, Li Xiong, Alison M Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Mahmut Edip Gurol, Jonathan Rosand, Steve M Greenberg, Anand Viswanathan
Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 2018, 89 (4): 397-403
29054916

INTRODUCTION: Acute non-traumatic convexity subarachnoid haemorrhage (cSAH) is increasingly recognised in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). We investigated: (a) the overlap between acute cSAH and cortical superficial siderosis-a new CAA haemorrhagic imaging signature and (b) whether acute cSAH presents with particular clinical symptoms in patients with probable CAA without lobar intracerebral haemorrhage.

METHODS: MRI scans of 130 consecutive patients meeting modified Boston criteria for probable CAA were analysed for cortical superficial siderosis (focal, ≤3 sulci; disseminated, ≥4 sulci), and key small vessel disease markers. We compared clinical, imaging and cortical superficial siderosis topographical mapping data between subjects with versus without acute cSAH, using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: We included 33 patients with probable CAA presenting with acute cSAH and 97 without cSAH at presentation. Patients with acute cSAH were more commonly presenting with transient focal neurological episodes (76% vs 34%; p<0.0001) compared with patients with CAA without cSAH. Patients with acute cSAH were also more often clinically presenting with transient focal neurological episodes compared with cortical superficial siderosis-positive, but cSAH-negative subjects with CAA (76% vs 30%; p<0.0001). Cortical superficial siderosis prevalence (but no other CAA severity markers) was higher among patients with cSAH versus those without, especially disseminated cortical superficial siderosis (49% vs 19%; p<0.0001). In multivariable logistic regression, cortical superficial siderosis burden (OR 5.53; 95% CI 2.82 to 10.8, p<0.0001) and transient focal neurological episodes (OR 11.7; 95% CI 2.70 to 50.6, p=0.001) were independently associated with acute cSAH.

CONCLUSIONS: This probable CAA cohort provides additional evidence for distinct disease phenotypes, determined by the presence of cSAH and cortical superficial siderosis.

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