Imaging Appearances and Pathologic Characteristics of Spinal Epidural Meningioma

L H Zhang, H S Yuan
AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology 2018, 39 (1): 199-204

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal epidural meningioma is an uncommon tumor. This study aimed to analyze the imaging and pathologic characteristics of this rare tumor.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fourteen confirmed cases of epidural meningioma were retrospectively reviewed, and imaging characteristics and pathologic findings were analyzed to identify the typical features.

RESULTS: The mean age of the patients (4 men, 10 women) was 44.9 years. Twelve tumors were in the cervical spinal canal, and 2, in the thoracic spinal canal. There were 9 en plaque meningiomas, 4 dumbbell-shaped meningiomas, and 1 fusiform/ovoid meningioma. The epidural meningiomas extended over 2-5 spinal segments (mean, 3.2 spinal segments). A soft epidural mass was seen in 12/14 (86%) patients. Dural calcification was seen in 8/14 (57%) tumors. Tumor caused intervertebral foramen enlargement in 10/14 (71%) patients and adhered to the nerve roots in 11/14 (79%) patients. Intradural invasion was seen in 8/14 (57%) patients. The dural tail sign was present in 13/14 (93%) tumors on contrast-enhanced T1WI. Regarding pathologic type, 10 of 14 (71%) were psammomatous, 2 of 14 (14%) were meningothelial, 1 of 14 (7%) was angiomatous, and 1 of 14 (7%) was transitional. During follow-up (mean follow-up, 73.4 months; range, 4-192 months), 7 patients had recurrence. Recurrences were between 4 and 192 months after the operation.

CONCLUSIONS: Epidural meningioma has 3 different growth patterns. Dural thickening, calcification, invasion, and epidural mass formation are characteristic features of epidural meningioma. Regular follow-up imaging is required to detect recurrence.

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