Optimal usage of radium-223 in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer

Tai-Lung Cha, Tony Tong-Lin Wu, Nicholas John Vogelzang, Chao-Yuan Huang, Shu-Pin Huang, Chia-Chi Lin, Yen-Chuan Ou, See-Tong Pang, Daniel Heung-Yuan Shen, Wen-Jeng Wu, Wayne Yen-Hwa Chang
Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 2017, 116 (11): 825-836
Radium-223 is a first-in-class α-emitting radiopharmaceutical that targets bone metastases associated with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). In the pivotal phase III trial ALSYMPCA, radium-223 significantly increased overall survival (OS), compared with placebo (median 14.9 vs 11.3 months; hazard ratio 0.70; 95% CI 0.58-0.83; p < 0.001), in patients with mCRPC and symptomatic bone metastases-with a comparable safety profile. To optimize treatment outcomes, selection of appropriate patients is important. As well as osteoblastic bone metastases, mCRPC patients should be well enough to receive six doses of radium-223 as this treatment duration has been shown to greatly improve OS outcomes compared with administration of four or fewer doses. Additionally, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase are emerging as important biomarkers during radium-223 treatment. Optimal concomitant standard-of-care therapies (such as abiraterone or enzalutamide) to be administered with radium-223 have yet to be defined as does the most efficacious dose and duration of radium-223 treatment. In conclusion, radium-223 is an important addition to the mCRPC treatment landscape and marks a paradigm shift in the treatment of bone metastases.

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