IgA antibodies against P30 as markers of congenital and acute toxoplasmosis

A Decoster, F Darcy, A Caron, A Capron
Lancet 1988 November 12, 2 (8620): 1104-7
Specific IgA antibodies against P30, a major surface protein of Toxoplasma gondii were sought in 198 serum samples (from 133 patients) by means of a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. These antibodies were detected in all cases of acute toxoplasmosis but in no cases of chronic toxoplasmosis nor in seronegative patients. They were not detected in samples from patients with "natural IgM antibodies" or in those containing rheumatoid factor or antinuclear antibodies. Among 26 infants whose mothers were infected during pregnancy, anti-P30 IgA antibodies were exclusively detected in the samples from the 8 infected infants, although anti-P30 IgM antibodies were detected in only 3 of the infected infants. No uninfected infant had IgA, though 5 had IgM at birth. Thus, the detection of IgA anti-P30 antibodies seems a better means than the detection of IgM antibodies of identifying infected infants, which is very important for treatment. In addition, the very early detection of IgA antibodies may be important for the diagnosis of acute toxoplasmosis, especially during pregnancy and perhaps also in patients infected by human immunodeficiency virus.

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