Prevalence and Risk Factors for Chronic Venous Disease in the General Russian Population

Igor A Zolotukhin, Evgeny I Seliverstov, Yuri N Shevtsov, Ilona P Avakiants, Aleksey S Nikishkov, Andrey M Tatarintsev, Alexander I Kirienko
European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery 2017, 54 (6): 752-758

OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: The aim was to establish the prevalence of chronic venous disease (CVD) and its risk factors in the general population.

METHODS: This was a population based, cross sectional study. In total, 703 residents aged > 18 years from the rural community of Kryukovo (Central Russia) were enrolled. Medical history was taken and clinical examination performed, documenting venous signs/symptoms. The CEAP classification of the most affected limb was used. Duplex ultrasound was performed to register morphological changes and reflux in deep and superficial veins.

RESULTS: There were 63% women and 37% men (mean age 53.5 years). CVD was found in 69.3%. Of all participants 4.7% were C0S and 34.3% were C1. Chronic venous insufficiency (C3-C6) was found in 8.2% and venous ulcers (C5-C6) in 1.1%. Venous pain, heaviness, fatigue, itching, and the sensation of swelling were documented in 14.8%, 36.3%, 32.8%, 7.0% and 29.1% of patients respectively. Family history was the significant risk factor for both CVD (hazard ratio [HR] 1.3) and primary varicose vein disease (HR 1.6; p < .01). Female sex was a risk factor only for CVD (HR 1.3; p < .01) but not for varicose veins. Age was a risk factor for CVD (HR 1.01) and for varicose veins (HR 1.02; p < .01). For women, number of births (HR 1.05; p < .05) and menopause (HR 1.3; p < .01) were risk factors for CVD. Menopause was a risk factor for varicose veins (HR 2.0; p < .05).

CONCLUSION: This study provides data on the prevalence of CVD, venous abnormalities and risk factors in Russia. The results contribute to already established data, giving a more complete outlook on the global prevalence of CVD.

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