JOURNAL ARTICLE

Cold-Water Immersion Cooling Rates in Football Linemen and Cross-Country Runners With Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia

Sandra Fowkes Godek, Katherine E Morrison, Gregory Scullin
Journal of Athletic Training 2017, 52 (10): 902-909
28937782

CONTEXT:   Ideal and acceptable cooling rates in hyperthermic athletes have been established in average-sized participants. Football linemen (FBs) have a small body surface area (BSA)-to-mass ratio compared with smaller athletes, which hinders heat dissipation.

OBJECTIVE:   To determine cooling rates using cold-water immersion in hyperthermic FBs and cross-country runners (CCs).

DESIGN:   Cohort study.

SETTING:   Controlled university laboratory.

PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS:   Nine FBs (age = 21.7 ± 1.7 years, height = 188.7 ± 4 cm, mass = 128.1 ± 18 kg, body fat = 28.9% ± 7.1%, lean body mass [LBM] = 86.9 ± 19 kg, BSA = 2.54 ± 0.13 m2 , BSA/mass = 201 ± 21.3 cm2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 276.4 ± 19.7 cm2 /kg) and 7 CCs (age = 20 ± 1.8 years, height = 176 ± 4.1 cm, mass = 68.7 ± 6.5 kg, body fat = 10.2% ± 1.6%, LBM = 61.7 ± 5.3 kg, BSA = 1.84 ± 0.1 m2 , BSA/mass = 268.3 ± 11.7 cm2 /kg, and BSA/LBM = 298.4 ± 11.7 cm2 /kg).

INTERVENTION(S):   Participants ingested an intestinal sensor, exercised in a climatic chamber (39°C, 40% relative humidity) until either target core temperature (Tgi ) was 39.5°C or volitional exhaustion was reached, and were immediately immersed in a 10°C circulated bath until Tgi declined to 37.5°C. A general linear model repeated-measures analysis of variance and independent t tests were calculated, with P < .05.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):   Physical characteristics, maximal Tgi , time to reach 37.5°C, and cooling rate.

RESULTS:   Physical characteristics were different between groups. No differences existed in environmental measures or maximal Tgi (FBs = 39.12°C ± 0.39°C, CCs = 39.38°C ± 0.19°C; P = .12). Cooling times required to reach 37.5°C (FBs = 11.4 ± 4 minutes, CCs = 7.7 ± 0.06 minutes; P < .002) and therefore cooling rates (FBs = 0.156°C·min-1 ± 0.06°C·min-1 , CCs = .255°C·min-1 ± 0.05°C·min-1 ; P < .002) were different. Strong correlations were found between cooling rate and body mass (r = -0.76, P < .001), total BSA (r = -0.74, P < .001), BSA/mass (r = 0.73, P < .001), LBM/mass (r = 0.72, P < .002), and LBM (r = -0.72, P < .002).

CONCLUSIONS:   With cold-water immersion, the cooling rate in CCs (0.255°C·min-1 ) was greater than in FBs (0.156°C·min-1 ); however, both were considered ideal (≥0.155°C·min-1 ). Athletic trainers should realize that it likely takes considerably longer to cool large hyperthermic American-football players (>11 minutes) than smaller, leaner athletes (7.7 minutes). Cooling rates varied widely from 0.332°C·min-1 in a small runner to only 0.101°C·min-1 in a lineman, supporting the use of rectal temperature for monitoring during cooling.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
28937782
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"