Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis

Hanny Al-Samkari, Nancy Berliner
Annual Review of Pathology 2018 January 24, 13: 27-49
Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a life-threatening disorder characterized by unbridled activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages resulting in hypercytokinemia and immune-mediated injury of multiple organ systems. It is seen in both children and adults and is recognized as primary (driven by underlying genetic mutations that abolish critical proteins required for normal function of cytotoxic T cells and NK cells) or secondary (resulting from a malignant, infectious, or autoimmune stimulus without an identifiable underlying genetic trigger). Clinical and laboratory manifestations include fever, splenomegaly, neurologic dysfunction, coagulopathy, liver dysfunction, cytopenias, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperferritinemia, hemophagocytosis, and diminished NK cell activity. It is treated with immune suppressants, etoposide, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; more than 50% of children who undergo transplant survive, but adults have quite poor outcomes even with aggressive management. Newer agents directed at subduing the uncontrolled immune response in a targeted fashion offer promise in this highly morbid disease.

Full Text Links

We have located links that may give you full text access.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"