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Pediatric Neurocysticercosis.

Neurocysticercosis is the most common helminth infection of nervous system in humans caused by the encysted larvae of Taenia solium. It is a major cause of epilepsy in tropical areas and the most common cause of focal-onset seizures in North Indian children. Children with neurocysticercosis have pleomorphic manifestations depending on the location, number and viability of the cysts and host response. In endemic areas, neurocysticercosis should be clinically suspected in any child with recent-onset seizures, headache or focal motor deficits where there is no other suggestion of an underlying neurological disorder. Diagnosis of neurocysticercosis is essentially based on neuroimaging; visualization of a scolex is diagnostic. Management includes use of cysticidal drugs usually albendazole, which seems to be effective for lesion resolution and seizure remission, use of steroids and anti-epileptic drugs. Single lesions portend good prognosis with resolution of lesions in >60% of the cases within 6 mo and good seizure control. Prognosis is guarded in cysticercus encephalitis, racemose and extraparenchymal neurocysticercosis.

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