Risk factors for sodium valproate-induced renal tubular dysfunction

Satoko Koga, Takahisa Kimata, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Shoji Tsuji, Ken Yoshimura, Atsushi Araki, Kazunari Kaneko
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology 2018, 22 (2): 420-425

OBJECTIVE: To explore the risk factors for the development of sodium valproate (VPA)-induced renal tubular dysfunction for early diagnosis and treatment.

STUDY DESIGN: The subjects were selected from patients who were diagnosed with epilepsy and administered VPA. Blood and spot urine samples were collected and measured the concentration of VPA, the level of serum phosphorus, serum uric acid, serum free carnitine, serum cystatin-c, and urine β2-microglobulin (BMG). Patients with urine BMG/creatinine levels above 219.2 were treated as renal proximal tubular dysfunction (RTD), with all others treated as non-RTD.

RESULTS: Eighty-seven patients, 4-48 years, 53 men and 34 women, were studied. RTD group is 17 patients and non-RTD group is 70 patients. Univariate analyses revealed that the RTD patients were more likely to be bedridden, receiving enteral tube feeding, taking more anticonvulsants, and demonstrating significantly lower serum levels of free carnitine, uric acid, and phosphorus. Among them, bedridden, free serum carnitine, and phosphorus levels were associated with the development of RTD by multivariate analysis.

CONCLUSIONS: Bedridden patients receiving VPA are susceptible to hypocarnitinemia, which can cause RTD and may lead to FS. Therefore, urinary BMG should be measured regularly in all patients receiving VPA to assess renal tubular function. An additional measurement of serum free carnitine level should be considered in patients who developed RTD. Supplementation of carnitine for those patients to prevent such complication deserves for further study.

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