Effects of 1,5-anhydroglucitol on postprandial blood glucose and insulin levels and hydrogen excretion in rats and healthy humans

Sadako Nakamura, Kenichi Tanabe, Kazuhiro Yoshinaga, Fumio Shimura, Tsuneyuki Oku
British Journal of Nutrition 2017, 118 (2): 81-91
The inhibition by 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol (1,5-AG) was determined on disaccharidases of rats and humans. Then, the metabolism and fate of 1,5-AG was investigated in rats and humans. Although 1,5-AG inhibited about 50 % of sucrase activity in rat small intestine, the inhibition was less than half of d-sorbose. 1,5-AG strongly inhibited trehalase and lactase, whereas d-sorbose inhibited them very weakly. 1,5-AG noncompetitively inhibited sucrase. The inhibition of 1,5-AG on sucrase and maltase was similar between humans and rats. 1,5-AG in serum increased 30 min after oral administration of 1,5-AG (600 mg) in rats, and mostly 100 % of 1,5-AG was excreted into the urine 24 h after administration. 1,5-AG in serum showed a peak 30 min after ingestion of 1,5-AG (20 g) by healthy subjects, and decreased gradually over 180 min. About 60 % of 1,5-AG was excreted into the urine for 9 h following ingestion. Hydrogen was scarcely excreted in both rats and humans 24 h after administration of 1,5-AG. Furthermore, 1,5-AG significantly suppressed the blood glucose elevation, and hydrogen excretion was increased following the simultaneous ingestion of sucrose and 1,5-AG in healthy subjects. 1,5-AG also significantly suppressed the blood glucose elevation following the simultaneous ingestion of glucose and 1,5-AG; however, hydrogen excretion was negligible. The available energy of 1,5-AG, which is absorbed readily from the small intestine and excreted quickly into the urine, is 0 kJ/g (0 kcal/g). Furthermore, 1,5-AG might suppress the blood glucose elevation through the inhibition of sucrase, as well as intestinal glucose absorption.

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