JOURNAL ARTICLE

All-trans retinoic acid suppresses malignant characteristics of CD133-positive thyroid cancer stem cells and induces apoptosis

Dan Mei, Bin Lv, Bo Chen, Shan Xiao, Jie Jiang, Yan Xie, Ling Jiang
PloS One 2017, 12 (8): e0182835
28817605
Recently, diagnoses of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer (RAI-R DTC) have become more common; prognosis is poor. It has been suggested that cancer stem cells account for radiotherapy resistance. By flow cytometry, different expression percents of CD133 and OCT4 in thyroid cancer cell lines were detected. By real-time quantitative PCR, different mRNA expression of CD133, OCT4, GLUT1, thyroglobulin (TG), thyroperoxidase (TPO) and sodium iodine symporter (NIS) was analyzed; the localization of CD133, OCT4, and NIS expression was examined using immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Different expression of CD133, OCT4, and NIS in 21 human thyroid cancer and nodule tissues was investigated using immunohistochemistry. CD133-positive cells were isolated by magnetic sorting. Stronger colony formation ability of CD133-positive and weaker ability of CD133-negative cells in vivo were examined by colony formation. The effects of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on CD133-positive cells in vivo were explored with Cell Counting Kit-8, colony formation, apoptosis, cell cycle, and ethynyl deoxyuridine assays. The ARO cell line and RAI-R DTC tissue specimens had more CD133-positive cells. NIS expression was significantly lower in RAI-R DTC tissue compared to radioiodine-sensitive DTC (RAI-DTC) tissue and specimens from patients with thyroid nodule. ATRA inhibited the stem cell characteristics of CD133-positive cells and induced CD133-positive cell differentiation to CD133-negative cells, and promoted CD133-positive cell apoptosis.

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