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Management of multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the intensive care unit: state of the art

Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Marco Cascella, Silvia Corcione, Arturo Cuomo, Salvatore Nappa, Guglielmo Borgia, Francesco Giuseppe De Rosa, Ivan Gentile
Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 2017, 15 (9): 861-871
28803496
Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is one of the most important causes of healthcare-related infections among Gram-negative bacteria. The best therapeutic approach is controversial, especially for multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains as well as in the setting of most severe patients, such as in the intensive care unit (ICU). Areas covered: This article addresses several points. First, the main microbiological aspects of PA, focusing on its wide array of resistance mechanisms. Second, risk factors and the worse outcome linked to MDR-PA infection. Third, the pharmacological peculiarity of ICU patients, that makes the choice of a proper antimicrobial therapy difficult. Eventually, the current therapeutic options against MDR-PA are reviewed, taking into account the main variables that drive antimicrobial optimization in critically ill patients. Literature search was carried out using Pubmed and Web of Science. Expert commentary: Methodologically rigorous studies are urgently needed to clarify crucial aspects of the treatment against MDR-PA, namely monotherapy versus combination therapy in empiric and targeted settings. In the meanwhile, useful options are represented by newly approved drugs, such as ceftolozane/tazobactam and ceftazidime/avibactam. In critically ill patients, at least as empirical approach, a combination therapy is a prudent choice when a MDR-PA strain is suspected.

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