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Clinical Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Micafungin

Roeland E Wasmann, Eline W Muilwijk, David M Burger, Paul E Verweij, Catherijne A Knibbe, Roger J Brüggemann
Clinical Pharmacokinetics 2018, 57 (3): 267-286
Micafungin is a selective inhibitor of the synthesis of fungal 1,3-β-D-glucan, an essential component of the fungal cell wall. It is available as a powder for infusion only and is registered for the treatment of invasive and esophageal candidiasis in addition to prophylaxis of Candida infections in both adults and children. Average exposure after a single intravenous 100 mg dose in healthy adults is 133 mg h/L. Both exposure and maximum plasma concentration show linear dose proportional pharmacokinetics (PK) over a 0.15-8 mg/kg dose range. In healthy adults, the clearance (CL) is 10.4 mL/h/kg and volume of distribution is 0.2 L/kg; both are independent of the dose. Micafungin is metabolized by arylsulfatase, catechol-O-methyltransferase, and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes (3A4, 1A2, 2B6 and 2C), but no dose adjustments are necessary in patients with (severe) hepatic dysfunction. Exposure to micafungin is lower in hematology patients, and is even further lowered in critically ill patients (including burn patients) compared with healthy volunteers, which might have consequences for treatment efficacy. In children, an increased CL has been reported: 40-80 mL/h/kg in premature neonates and 20 mL/h/kg in children >4 months of age. Therefore, relatively higher doses of 4-10 mg/kg in premature neonates and 2-4 mg/kg in children with invasive candidiasis are used. However, these higher CLs may also be explained by the eightfold higher free fraction of unbound micafungin in premature neonates, meaning that an augmented dose might not be required.


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