JOURNAL ARTICLE

Regression of Neonatal Cardiac Rhabdomyoma in Two Months Through Low-Dose Everolimus Therapy: A Report of Three Cases

Jeng-Sheng Chang, Ping-Yun Chiou, Shu-Hui Yao, I-Ching Chou, Ching-Yuang Lin
Pediatric Cardiology 2017, 38 (7): 1478-1484
28780710
Cardiac rhabdomyoma (CR) is the most common cardiac tumor in newborns. Approximately 75% of cases are associated with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although these tumors usually spontaneously regress after 2 years of age, they can be life-threatening when they obstruct major cardiac inflow or outflow pathways. Everolimus is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, reducing its production of the proteins harmartin and tuberin. Everolimus has demonstrated a remarkable suppression effect in children with tuberous sclerosis complex at doses of 4.7-5.6 mg/M2 /day and serum trough levels of 5-15 ng/mL. Since 2012, five case reports of neonates with CR have also reported the tumor-regressing effect of everolimus. However, the optimal dosage for neonates is still unknown. Over the past 2 years, we have deliberately used a low dose everolimus regimen (0.3-0.67 mg/M2 /day) in three neonates with large CRs, in an effort to maintain serum trough levels at 3-7 ng/mL. In all three cases, the tumors regressed smoothly within 2 months. Regarding the drug's side effect of predisposing patients to infection, we observed that adenovirus pneumonia occurred in one case at 3 months of age, and chicken pox occurred in another case at 9 months of age; both recovered smoothly. Our three cases of neonatal CR demonstrate that a low-dose everolimus regimen is an effective treatment for tumor regression.

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