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Rechargeable microbial anti-adhesive polymethyl methacrylate incorporating silver sulfadiazine-loaded mesoporous silica nanocarriers.

Dental Materials 2017 October
OBJECTIVES: Even though polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin is widely used as a dental material, it has poor microbial anti-adhesive properties, which accelerates oral infections. In this investigation, silver-sulfadiazine (AgSD)-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ag-MSNs) were incorporated into PMMA to introduce long-term microbial anti-adhesive effects and to make PMMA a rechargeable resin.

METHODS: After characterization of the Ag-MSNs in terms of their mesoporous characteristics and drug loading capacity, the 3 point flexural test and hardness were evaluated in PMMA incorporating Ag-MSNs (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%). Anti-adhesive effects were observed for Candida albicans and Streptococcus oralis with experimental specimens for up to 28days and after recharging with AgSD.

RESULTS: A typical spherical morphology and high mesoporosity were observed for the MSNs used for loading AgSD. Incorporation of Ag-MSNs into PMMA (0.5, 1, 2.5 and 5%) sustained its flexural strength but increased its surface hardness. Anti-adhesive effects were observed after 1h of exposure to both microbial species, and the effects accelerated with increasing Ag-MSN incorporation into PMMA. Long-term microbial anti-adhesive effects were observed for up to 14 days, and further long-term (7 days) anti-adhesive effects were observed after reloading the Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA (aged for 28 days) with AgSD; these effects were largely caused by released silver ions and partially by changes in surface hydrophilicity. No cytotoxicity to keratinocytes was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The improved mechanical properties and the prolonged microbial anti-adhesive effects, which lasted after reloading of the drug, suggest the potential usefulness of Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA as a microbial anti-adhesive dental material.

SIGNIFICANCE: Ag-MSN-incorporated PMMA can be used as a microbial anti-adhesive dental material for dentures, orthodontic devices and provisional restorative materials.

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