[Analysis of drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii in wound of children with traffic injury and its relationship with antibiotic use]

S Liu, C Wang, Y X Fu
Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns 2017 July 20, 33 (7): 404-409
Objective: To know the drug resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) in wound of children with traffic injury and its relationship with antibiotic use. Methods: Wound exudate of 226 children with traffic injury admitted to our unit from January 2010 to December 2015 were collected. API bacteria identification panels and fully automatic microbiological identification system were used to identify pathogens. Kirby-Bauer paper disk diffusion method was used to detect the drug resistance of pathogens to 18 antibiotics including amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, piperacillin/tazobactam, and imipenem. The detection situation of pathogen of children's wounds and drug resistance of detected AB to 18 antibiotics in each year were collected. Forty-six AB positive children (2 children excluded) were divided into imipenem-resistant group (IR, n=19) and non imipenem-resistant group (NIR, n=25) according to whether AB was 100% resistant to imipenem. Drug resistance of AB in wounds of children to 18 antibiotics in two groups was compared. The antibiotic use of AB positive children was collected, and the antibiotic use intensity of children in two groups was compared. Data were processed with Fisher's exact test, independent sample t test, and corrected t test. Results: (1) The detection rates of pathogen in wounds of children in 2010-2015 were 95.6% (43/45), 89.8% (53/59), 81.3% (148/182), 81.1% (107/132), 81.6% (120/147), and 77.5% (62/80), respectively, showing a trend of decreasing year by year. A total of 665 strains and 75 pathogens were detected, and the top 5 pathogens with detection rate from high to low were AB, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli, respectively. (2) Drug resistance rates of AB to amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefazolin, aztreonam, and piperacillin were all 100%, while AB was 100% sensitive to polymyxin, and the total drug resistance rates of AB to the other 13 antibiotics were all above 50%. The drug resistance rate of AB in wounds of children to piperacillin was higher than that to piperacillin/tazobactam in 2010-2015. (3) Except for imipenem, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid, cefazolin, aztreonam, piperacillin, and polymyxin, the drug resistance rates of AB in wounds of children in group IR to the other 12 antibiotics were higher than those in group NIR (with P values below 0.01). Besides, AB strains in wounds of children in group IR were completely resistant to at least 3 kinds of antibiotics including carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and quinolones, so that they were multidrug-resistant AB. (4) A total of 32 antibiotics were used in 46 AB positive children, and the 10-top-used antibiotics with use intensity from high to low were cefoperazone/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, cefazolin, imipenem, ceftizoxime, amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime, cefepime, amoxycillin/sulbactam, and cefmetazole, respectively. (5) Twenty-one antibiotics were not included in the comparison because of their small amount of usage. For the other 11 antibiotics, only the use intensity of metronidazole of children in two groups was statistically different (t=-3.104, P<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in total antibiotic use of children in two groups (t=0.368, P>0.05). Conclusions: AB is one of the main pathogens in wounds of children with traffic injury, with high drug resistant rate. The high intensity of antibiotic use may lead to its drug resistance. In this study, the top-used antibiotics were in accord with AB resistant drugs, indicating a lack of normative use of antibiotics.

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