JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Cardiac amyloidosis: An update on pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment

Omar K Siddiqi, Frederick L Ruberg
Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine 2018, 28 (1): 10-21
28739313
The amyloidoses are a group of systemic diseases characterized by organ deposition of misfolded protein fragments of diverse origins. The natural history of the disease, involvement of other organs, and treatment options vary significantly based on the protein of origin. In AL amyloidosis, amyloid protein is derived from immunoglobulin light chains, and most often involves the kidneys and the heart. ATTR amyloidosis is categorized as mutant or wild-type depending on the genetic sequence of the transthyretin (TTR) protein produced by the liver. Wild-type ATTR amyloidosis mainly involves the heart, although the reported occurrence of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, spinal stenosis and biceps tendon rupture in these patients speaks to more generalized protein deposition. Mutant TTR is marked by cardiac and/or peripheral nervous system involvement. Cardiac involvement is associated with symptoms of heart failure, and dictates the clinical course of the disease. Cardiac amyloidosis can be diagnosed noninvasively by echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or nuclear scintigraphy. Endomyocardial biopsy may be needed in the case of equivocal imaging findings or discordant data. Treatment is aimed at relieving congestive symptoms and targeting the underlying amyloidogenic process. This includes anti-plasma cell therapy in AL amyloidosis, and stabilization of the TTR tetramer or inhibition of TTR protein production in ATTR amyloidosis. Cardiac transplantation can be considered in highly selected patients in tandem with therapy aimed at suppressing the amyloidogenic process, and appears associated with durable long-term survival.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
28739313
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"