Endobronchial embolization for life-threatening hemoptysis with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot

Sze Shyang Kho, Swee Kim Chan, Mei Ching Yong, Siew Teck Tie
BMC Research Notes 2017 July 21, 10 (1): 304

BACKGROUND: Massive hemoptysis is a common encounter in respiratory medicine. Bronchoscopy plays an important role in localizing the origin of bleeding, as well as endoscopic treatment of centrally located lesions. Endobronchial embolization is a novel technique enabling the management of hemoptysis arising even from peripheral lesions, via occlusion of the culprit bronchus, thereby securing the airway. Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot had been advocate in the treatment of bronchopleural fistula and the use of this novel technique had since then been expanded into the management of massive hemoptysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case in Malaysia.

CASE PRESENTATION: 78-year-old lady who presented with life-threatening hemoptysis leading rapidly to cardiac arrest upon arrival. Spontaneous circulation was restored after resuscitation with an urgent thoracic computed tomography angiogram revealed bleeding likely from the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe, with bronchiectatic changes. Urgent flexible bronchoscopy revealed airway flooding, with bleeding originating from the lingular and posterior-basal segment of the left lower lobe. Airway toileting was performed and two 7 mm Endobronchial Watanabe Spigots were plugged into the culprit bronchi. Urgent bronchial artery embolization was then attempted, but was unsuccessful. She was managed conservatively, as surgical resection was deemed high risk. The spigots were removed 4 days later uneventfully. There was no recurrence of hemoptysis, and patient remained well during 1-month follow up.

CONCLUSIONS: The utmost priority in managing life-threatening hemoptysis is to prevent airway flooding. Endobronchial embolization with Endobronchial Watanabe Spigot is useful as a temporary measure before definitive therapy, or can itself be the main therapeutic player in the hemoptysis armament for high-risk patients.


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