Maternal-Fetal Outcomes in 34 Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes in Sensor-Augmented Insulin Pump Therapy

Ana María Gómez, Lisseth Fernanda Marín Carrillo, Carol M Arévalo Correa, Oscar Mauricio Muñoz Velandia, Martín Alonso Rondón Sepúlveda, Jaime Luis Silva Herrera, Diana Cristina Henao Carrillo
Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics 2017, 19 (7): 417-422

BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with increased risk of maternal complications and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Optimizing glycemic control improves these outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the experience of using sensor-augmented insulin pump therapy (SAPT) and SAPT + low-glucose suspension (LGS) on pregnant women with T1D, including neonatal and maternal outcomes.

METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in women with T1D who started SAPT and SAPT + LGS before or during pregnancy at the San Ignacio University Hospital Diabetes Center in Bogotá, Colombia. The main indication was severe hypoglycemia (SH) and poor glycemic control. Glycated hemoglobin (A1c), hypoglycemia, and maternal and fetal outcomes were assessed.

RESULTS: Thirty-four pregnant women with T1D on SAPT and SAPT + LGS were included. Sixteen patients started therapy during pregnancy at a mean gestational age of 17.6 ± 8.3 weeks. Mean preconceptional A1c was 8.24% ± 2.02%. Absolute reduction of A1c level from prepregnancy to third trimester was -1.63% (P < 0.0001), with a significant clinical and statistical reduction in both groups, women who initiated SAPT before or during pregnancy. 52.9% of patients in second trimester and 66.6% in third trimester achieved A1c <6.5%, respectively. 91.1% underwent cesarean section. The main reasons were iterative cesarean (30%), fetal distress (20%), and preeclampsia (16%). The median gestational age at delivery was 37 weeks and 15 pregnancies resulted in preterm delivery. There was neither maternal-fetal mortality nor severe hypoglycemic episodes. Two patients had diabetic ketoacidosis.

CONCLUSIONS: In pregnant patients with T1D and high risk of hypoglycemia, SAPT and SAPT + LGS should be considered as a therapeutic alternative for A1c reduction with a low risk of SH. However, additional studies are required to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this therapy during pregnancy.


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