Novel Rotational Speed Modulation System Used With Venoarterial Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

Noritsugu Naito, Takashi Nishimura, Kei Iizuka, Yutaka Fujii, Yoshiaki Takewa, Akihide Umeki, Masahiko Ando, Minoru Ono, Eisuke Tatsumi
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2017, 104 (5): 1488-1495

BACKGROUND: Femoral venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is widely used to maintain blood flow in patients with cardiogenic shock. However, retrograde blood flow increases left ventricular (LV) afterload during femoral VA-ECMO. Additional support by means of an intraaortic balloon pump (IABP) alleviates LV afterload but is associated with significant adverse events. We previously developed a system for rotational speed modulation in synchrony with the native cardiac cycle, for use with implantable continuous-flow LV assist devices. Here, we aimed to evaluate whether our novel rotation speed modulation system can improve coronary artery flow and reduce LV during femoral VA-ECMO.

METHODS: VA-ECMO was installed by means of right atrial drainage and distal abdominal aortic perfusion in six adult goats. Cardiogenic shock was induced with β-adrenergic antagonist infusion. An IABP was placed in the descending aorta. LV stroke work, LV end-systolic pressure, and coronary arterial flow were evaluated. Data were collected under five conditions (modes): baseline, circuit-clamp (cardiogenic shock), continuous mode (constant rotational speed), counterpulse mode (increasing rotational speed during diastole), and continuous mode with IABP support.

RESULTS: LV stroke work and LV end-systolic pressure tended to be lower in the counterpulse mode, indicating decreased LV work load and afterload in this mode. Furthermore, coronary arterial flow tended to be higher in the counterpulse mode.

CONCLUSIONS: Our system enabled an increase in coronary arterial flow and a decrease in LV work load and afterload during VA-ECMO. The system offers the effects of VA-ECMO and an IABP in a single device.

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