JOURNAL ARTICLE

Comparison Between Carbapenems and β-Lactam/β-Lactamase Inhibitors in the Treatment for Bloodstream Infections Caused by Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae : A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Maged Muhammed, Myrto Eleni Flokas, Marios Detsis, Michail Alevizakos, Eleftherios Mylonakis
Open Forum Infectious Diseases 2017, 4 (2): ofx099
28702469

BACKGROUND: Carbapenems are widely used for the management of bloodstream infections (BSIs) caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE). However, the wide use of carbapenems has been associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae development.

METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Scopus databases (last search date was on June 1, 2016) looking for studies that reported mortality in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSIs that were treated with carbapenems or β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BL/BLIs).

RESULTS: Fourteen studies reported mortality data in adult patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated with carbapenems or BL/BLIs. Among them, 13 studies reported extractable data on empiric therapy, with no statistically significant difference in mortality of patients with ESBL-PE BSI that were treated empirically with carbapenems (22.1%; 121 of 547), compared with those that received empiric BL/BLIs (20.5%; 109 of 531; relative risk [RR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.37; I2 = 20.7%; P = .241). In addition, 7 studies reported data on definitive therapy. In total, 767 patients (79.3%) received carbapenems and 199 patients (20.6%) received BL/BLIs as definitive therapy, and there was again no statistically significant difference (RR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.25-1.52; I2 = 84.6%; P < .001). Regarding specific pathogens, the use of empiric BL/BLIs in patients with BSI due to ESBL- Escherichia coli was not associated with a statistically significant difference in mortality (RR, 1.014; 95% CI, 0.491-2.095; I2 = 62.5%; P = .046), compared with the use of empiric carbapenems.

CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support the wide use of carbapenems as empiric therapy, and BL/BLIs might be effective agents for initial/empiric therapy for patients with BSI caused by likely ESBL-PE, and especially ESBL -E coli.

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