JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Formulation of combined predictive indicators using logistic regression model in predicting sepsis and prognosis]

Liwei Duan, Sheng Zhang, Zhaofen Lin
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2017, 29 (2): 139-144
28625261

OBJECTIVE: To explore the method and performance of using multiple indices to diagnose sepsis and to predict the prognosis of severe ill patients.

METHODS: Critically ill patients at first admission to intensive care unit (ICU) of Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, from January 2014 to September 2015 were enrolled if the following conditions were satisfied: (1) patients were 18-75 years old; (2) the length of ICU stay was more than 24 hours; (3) All records of the patients were available. Data of the patients was collected by searching the electronic medical record system. Logistic regression model was formulated to create the new combined predictive indicator and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for the new predictive indicator was built. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for both the new indicator and original ones were compared. The optimal cut-off point was obtained where the Youden index reached the maximum value. Diagnostic parameters such as sensitivity, specificity and predictive accuracy were also calculated for comparison. Finally, individual values were substituted into the equation to test the performance in predicting clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: A total of 362 patients (218 males and 144 females) were enrolled in our study and 66 patients died. The average age was (48.3±19.3) years old. (1) For the predictive model only containing categorical covariants [including procalcitonin (PCT), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), infection, white blood cells count (WBC) and fever], increased PCT, increased WBC and fever were demonstrated to be independent risk factors for sepsis in the logistic equation. The AUC for the new combined predictive indicator was higher than that of any other indictor, including PCT, LPS, infection, WBC and fever (0.930 vs. 0.661, 0.503, 0.570, 0.837, 0.800). The optimal cut-off value for the new combined predictive indicator was 0.518. Using the new indicator to diagnose sepsis, the sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy rate were 78.00%, 93.36% and 87.47%, respectively. One patient was randomly selected, and the clinical data was substituted into the probability equation for prediction. The calculated value was 0.015, which was less than the cut-off value (0.518), indicating that the prognosis was non-sepsis at an accuracy of 87.47%. (2) For the predictive model only containing continuous covariants, the logistic model which combined acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score to predict in-hospital death events, both APACHE II score and SOFA score were independent risk factors for death. The AUC for the new predictive indicator was higher than that of APACHE II score and SOFA score (0.834 vs. 0.812, 0.813). The optimal cut-off value for the new combined predictive indicator in predicting in-hospital death events was 0.236, and the corresponding sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the combined predictive indicator were 73.12%, 76.51% and 75.70%, respectively. One patient was randomly selected, and the APACHE II score and SOFA score was substituted into the probability equation for prediction. The calculated value was 0.570, which was higher than the cut-off value (0.236), indicating that the death prognosis at an accuracy of 75.70%.

CONCLUSIONS: The combined predictive indicator, which is formulated by logistic regression models, is superior to any single indicator in predicting sepsis or in-hospital death events.

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