Decrease in Adult Neurogenesis and Neuroinflammation Are Involved in Spatial Memory Impairment in the Streptozotocin-Induced Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease in Rats

Taysa Bervian Bassani, Jéssica M Bonato, Meira M F Machado, Valentín Cóppola-Segovia, Eric L R Moura, Silvio M Zanata, Rúbia M M W Oliveira, Maria A B F Vital
Molecular Neurobiology 2018, 55 (5): 4280-4296
Early impairments in cerebral glucose metabolism and insulin signaling pathways may participate in the pathogenesis of the sporadic form of Alzheimer's disease (sAD). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) are used to mimic sAD and study these alterations in rodents. Streptozotocin causes impairments in insulin signaling and has been reported to trigger several alterations in the brain, such as oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and dysfunctions in adult neurogenesis, which may be involved in cognitive decline and are features of human AD. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of neuroinflammation on the process of adult neurogenesis and consequent cognitive deficits in the STZ-ICV model of sAD in Wistar rats. Streptozotocin caused an acute and persistent neuroinflammatory response, reflected by reactive microgliosis and astrogliosis in periventricular areas and the dorsal hippocampus, accompanied by a marked reduction of the proliferation of neural stem cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus and subventricular zone. Streptozotocin also reduced the survival, differentiation, and maturation of newborn neurons, resulting in impairments in short-term and long-term spatial memory. These results support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation has a detrimental effect on neurogenesis, and both neuroinflammation and impairments in neurogenesis contribute to cognitive deficits in the STZ-ICV model of sAD.

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