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The management of mixed urinary incontinence in women.

Mixed urinary incontinence is a common diagnosis among women with urinary leakage and is often present in women who are unable to characterize their incontinence. Research and optimized clinical treatment of these patients is limited by the challenges in objectively defining and stratifying this population. The evaluation of these patients should follow the same general principles as any assessment of any women with incontinence; however, it is essential to define whether urge or stress incontinence is the predominant symptom. Urodynamics (UDS) may be helpful in this regard and may help predict surgical outcomes. Behavioural therapy, weight loss, and pelvic floor muscle therapy are usually appropriate initial management strategies. In postmenopausal women, vaginal estrogen can be considered, and in women with equal parts stress and urge incontinence or urge-predominant mixed incontinence, a trial of anticholinergics or beta-3 agonists is appropriate. In women with stress-predominant or equal parts stress and urge incontinence, stress incontinence surgery can be considered, with the caveat that outcomes are generally worse among women with more severe levels of urgency, success rates may not be as durable, and a significant proportion of women may need additional medical therapy.

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