Live birth rate following oral antibiotic treatment for chronic endometritis in infertile women with repeated implantation failure

Kotaro Kitaya, Hidehiko Matsubayashi, Yukiko Takaya, Rie Nishiyama, Kohei Yamaguchi, Takumi Takeuchi, Tomomoto Ishikawa
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI 2017, 78 (5)

PROBLEM: The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the prevalence of chronic endometritis (CE) in infertile women with a history of repeated implantation failure (RIF) and to determine whether oral antibiotic treatment improves their live birth rate in the following embryo transfer (ET) cycles.

METHOD OF STUDY: Endometrial biopsy samples obtained from infertile women with RIF were subjected to immunohistochemistrical/histopathologic diagnosis of CE. Following antibiotic administration to the RIF/CE group, their histopathologic cure rate, microbial detection rate, and reproductive outcome in the subsequent ET cycles were prospectively studied.

RESULTS: 33.7% of infertile women with RIF were diagnosed with CE. Following the first-line doxycycline treatment, the histopathologic cure rate in the subsequent endometrial biopsy was 92.3%. Following the second-line metronidazole/ciprofloxacin treatment, the overall cure rate was 99.1%. The live birth rate in the first ET cycle (P=.031, RR 1.48, 95% CI 1.03-2.12) and cumulative three ET cycles (P=.037, RR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.90) following antibiotic treatment in the cured RIF/CE group (32.8% and 38.8%, respectively) was significantly higher than in the RIF/non-CE group (22.1% and 27.9%, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Chronic endometritis was found in one-third of infertile women with RIF. The oral antibiotic treatment against CE might be a promising therapeutic option for infertile women with RIF.

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