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Diagnosis and Management of Heart Failure in Older Adults.

Aging is characterized by heterogeneity, both in health and illness. Older adults with heart failure often have preserved ejection fraction and atypical and delayed clinical manifestations. After diagnosis of heart failure is established, a cause should be sought. The patient's comorbidities may provide clues. An elevated jugular venous pressure is the most reliable clinical sign of fluid volume overload and should be carefully evaluated. Left ventricular ejection fraction must be determined to assess prognosis and guide therapy. These 5 steps, namely, diagnosis, etiologic factor, fluid volume, ejection fraction, and therapy for heart failure may be memorized by mnemonic: DEFEAT-HF.

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