Sex-specific cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters as predictors in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

Ping Yuan, Hui-Juan Ni, Tian-Xiang Chen, Bigyan Pudasaini, Rong Jiang, Hui Liu, Qin-Hua Zhao, Lan Wang, Su-Gang Gong, Jin-Ming Liu
Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2017 October 5, 40 (10): 868-875
Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has been used for prognosis in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). We explored whether sex differences had an impact on prognostic assessments of CPET in IPAH. Data were retrieved from 21 male and 36 female incident IPAH patients who underwent both right heart catheterization and CPET from 2010 to 2016 at Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of CPET. The mean duration of follow-up was 22±15 months. Nine men and 15 women had an event. The differences in clinical parameters in the whole population were not the same as the inter-subgroup differences. Event-free women had significantly higher cardiac output, lower pulmonary vascular resistance and percentage of predicted FVC compared with event men (all P<0.05). Event-free men had significantly higher end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PET CO2 ) at anaerobic threshold (AT), peak workload, PET CO2 , maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 )/minute ventilation (VE), and oxygen uptake efficiency slope and lower end-tidal partial pressure of O2 (PET O2 ) at AT, peak PET O2 , and lowest VE/VCO2 compared with event men. Event-free women had dramatically higher peak VO2 , VCO2 , VE and O2 pulse than event women (all P<0.05). Peak PET CO2 was the independent predictor of event-free survival in all patients and males, whereas peak O2 pulse was the independent predictor of event-free survival in females. Men with peak PET CO2 ⩾20.50 mm Hg, women with peak O2 pulse ⩾6.25 ml per beat and all patients with peak PET CO2 ⩾27.03 mm Hg had significantly better event-free survival. Sex-specific CPET parameters are predictors of poor outcomes. Decreased peak PET CO2 in men and peak O2 pulse in women were associated with lower event-free survival in IPAH.

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