Newly Identified Characteristics and Suggestions for Diagnosis and Treatment of Diffuse Leptomeningeal Glioneuronal/Neuroepithelial Tumors: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Megan R Lyle, Jaydevsinh N Dolia, Jonathan Fratkin, Todd A Nichols, Betty L Herrington
Child Neurology Open 2015, 2 (1): 2329048X14567531
Diffuse leptomeningeal glioneuronal tumor is unique for communicating hydrocephalus, diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement, cystic changes, absence of tumor cells in cerebral spinal fluid, and a cell population of both glial and neuronal copositivity. It has likely been misdiagnosed as mixed glioneuronal tumors, oligodendrogliomas, and neuroepithelial tumors. Children with signs of this tumor are often worked up for infection, rheumatologic disease, or disseminated primary malignancy, resulting in unnecessary testing and treatment. We describe a 14-year-old female with recurrent headaches, hydrocephalus, and diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement discovered to be neoplastic 1 year after initial presentation, owing to extensive and unrevealing infectious and immunologic workups. Biopsies revealed atypical cells with markers of both glial and neuronal cells, positivity for OLIG-2, and focal p53 positivity. Great response was seen with temozolomide and craniospinal irradiation. Additionally, we postulate additional diagnostic indicators that may aid in earlier diagnosis and treatment decisions.

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