A focal neurological deficit with sudden onset or rapid progression is an alarming symptom indicating a neurological disorder with often urgent need for treatment. Particularly in the emergency room, where time and resources are limited, it is necessary to rapidly assign such a focal neurological deficit to a certain syndrome and to define a suspected diagnosis in order to execute the correct diagnostics and emergency therapy. In this article, we highlight frequent and typical neurological disorders presenting in the emergency room and their corresponding focal neurological deficits. The article and a suggested algorithm are to guide less-experienced colleagues to find quick steps from acute symptoms to diagnosis and emergency treatment of frequent and relevant neurological disorders in the emergency room.
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