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Rhinovirus - From bench to bedside.

Rhinovirus has been neglected in the past because it was generally perceived as a respiratory virus only capable of causing mild common cold. Contemporary epidemiological studies using molecular assays have shown that rhinovirus is frequently detected in adult and pediatric patients with upper or lower respiratory tract infections. Severe pulmonary and extrapulmonary complications are increasingly recognized. Contrary to popular belief, some rhinoviruses can actually replicate well at 37 °C and infect the lower airway in humans. The increasing availability of multiplex PCR panels allows rapid detection of rhinovirus and provides the opportunity for timely treatment and early recognition of outbreaks. Recent advances in the understanding of host factors for viral attachment and replication, and the host immunological response in both asthmatic and non-asthmatic individuals, have provided important insights into rhinovirus infection which are crucial in the development of antiviral treatment. The identification of novel drugs has been accelerated by repurposing clinically-approved drugs. As humoral antibodies induced by past exposure and vaccine antigen of a particular serotype cannot provide full coverage for all rhinovirus serotypes, novel vaccination strategies are required for inducing protective response against all rhinoviruses.

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