JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Hepatocellular carcinoma in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis: Current knowledge and implications for management

George Cholankeril, Ronak Patel, Sandeep Khurana, Sanjaya K Satapathy
World Journal of Hepatology 2017 April 18, 9 (11): 533-543
28469809
With the prevalence of hepatitis C virus expected to decline, the proportion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) related to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is anticipated to increase exponentially due to the growing epidemic of obesity and diabetes. The annual incidence rate of developing HCC in patients with NASH-related cirrhosis is not clearly understood with rates ranging from 2.6%-12.8%. While multiple new mechanisms have been implicated in the development of HCC in NASH; further prospective long-term studies are needed to validate these findings. Recent evidence has shown a significant proportion of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and NASH progress to HCC in the absence of cirrhosis. Liver resection and transplantation represent curative therapeutic options in select NASH-related HCC patients but have placed a significant burden to our healthcare resources and utilization. Currently NASH-related HCC is the fastest growing indication for liver transplant in HCC candidates. Increased efforts to implement effective screening and preventative strategies, particularly in non-cirrhotic NASH patients, are needed to reduce the future impact imposed by NASH-related HCC.

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