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Thalassemia review: features, dental considerations and management.

Thalassemia is a genetic disorder that involves abnormal haemoglobin formation. The two main categories of thalassemia are alpha and beta thalassemia that are then divided into further subcategories. While some mild forms of thalassemia might even go unnoticed and only cause mild anaemia and iron deficiency problems in patients, other more severe forms of thalassemia can even result in death. Individuals with thalassemia can get treatment according to the level of severity of their condition. The main oral manifestations of thalassemia are Class II malocclusion, maxillary protrusion, high caries index, severe gingivitis. Any dental surgical procedure for such patients should be done under antibiotic cover and immediately after transfusion. Caution should be exercised in thalassemia patients due to complications related to compromised immunity and cardiovascular issues. Multidisciplinary approach involving dental surgeon, haematologist and orthodontist is the best advised approach.

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